10 Things Depression Makes Us Do video

23.06.2020

Depression is the most frequent psychiatric disorder. 25% of the population suffers from depression at least once in their lives. 

Women are twice as likely to experience mild depression as men, but severe depression and recurrent depression affect men and women equally.

In males, the rate of depression increases with age. In women it is more frequent between 35 and 45 years.

The incidence of this disease is lower among married people than among single women.

Between 10% -20% of the patients who consult the family doctor have depression and 50% of the patients attended by the psychiatrist are depressive.

It is important, first of all, to recognize that it is a disease. Although most cases are mild, about 1 in 20 people will have a moderate or severe episode. Severe depression affects 4% of the population. In addition, one in 50 patients with depression will require hospital treatment and up to 15% of patients will end up committing suicide.

It is necessary to assess the personal and social impact caused by depression, isolation and social stigmatization, work absenteeism with its costs and the resulting complications (alcohol, drugs, suicide ...).

Patients and their families pay a high price in a tendency to get sick, by enduring the harshness of sadness and hopelessness that affects everyone.

The precise cause of this disease is unknown. It is known that in the predisposition to depression there is an important genetic component and some stressful life conditions. Certain physical diseases play a role in the precipitation and maintenance of the disease, through biochemical and physiological mechanisms. In depression, the following elements are combined:

  • Genetic: the existence of a genetic basis is associated, above all, with manic-depressive disorders (80%), and the genetic basis for neurotic or dysthymic depression is less than 10%.
  • Biological: in depression, there is a decrease in the amount and effectiveness of different substances or brain transmitters. This is the basis of treatment with antidepressant medications.
  • Psychological: Depression, according to psychoanalysts, would be the consequence of affective losses or frustrations, in the context of traumatic childhood experiences, which leave the subject vulnerable to ruptures and losses.

In any case, depression presents a multifactorial cause and the biopsychosocial model, which links the biological characteristics of the individual to their social situation in their environment, constitutes their best approach. Family inheritance is likely to provide a trend to it. and that it is manifested when reinforced by learned maladaptive responses, as well as in the face of stressful social events.

Risk factor's

They can be synthesized into three main groups: biological, sociodemographic, and psychosocial.

Biological

  • Genetic: family history predicts endogenous origin.
  • Premenstrual syndrome: Affective disorders usually coexist in women with a history of premenstrual depressive symptoms.

Sociodemographic

  • Age: it has been observed that bipolar disorders begin at younger ages (the 20s) than non-bipolar disorders (30-45 years).
  • Sex: non-bipolar affective disorders predominate in women (3: 1). Completed suicide is more frequent in males.
  • Marital status: there is a higher prevalence of non-bipolar disorders in married women.
  • Social class: there is an inverse relationship between social class and non-bipolar disorders. Bipolars are more prevalent in the upper classes.
  • Religion: does not appear to be a specific risk factor; however, the suicide rate is lower among Jews and Catholics.
  • Work: the work-depression relationship is clear and there is a greater incidence in the highest positions and in the lowest positions.

Psychosocial

  • Personality: Dependent, borderline and obsessive personalities with neurotic traits are more susceptible.
  • Social support: the low interpersonal relationship, the couple and the low social network are factors of poor prognosis.
  • Loss of ancestors: the loss of a parent in childhood increases the risk of depression.
  • Life events: there are talks about life events or psychosocial transitions that could precipitate the onset of depression.

In many occasions, the depressive picture can go unnoticed, since the reason for consultation, between 50% and 80% of cases, is due to a physical complaint and not to a change in mood.

Depression can manifest with a wide variety of psychological (affective, cognitive, behavioral, and rhythmic) and somatic symptoms.

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