Be in lingering torment

11.09.2020

Mental health is not a stigma: it is another reality of our society. Knowing the different types of existing personality disorders undoubtedly reveals the great care needs of these people and their families.

Living with permanent anguish, with distrust, feeling watched. Experiencing rejection towards people and even feeling the impulse of violence. Perceiving yourself as someone inferior and always being gripped by shame and fear ... The main personality disorders define situations of high drama and wear and tear of which we should all be more aware.

These psychological conditions are as diverse as they are particular. However, all of them define states in which the way of thinking, feeling and acting does not conform to society or makes coexistence difficult. In addition, they cause suffering, both for those who suffer from this type of disorder and for those closest to them.

However, the most decisive thing in all cases is to have specialized care as soon as possible. Most of the personality disorders appear between the ages of 15 and 25. Thus, having an early diagnosis can significantly improve the quality of life of these patients.

Having a mental health problem is not a stigma . It is one more part of our existence, a much more common reality than we think it can and should be attended to normally, professionally and making use of all possible areas: medical, psychological, educational, social, healthcare, etc. .

The main personality disorders

The main personality disorders are 10 . They are basically defined as being stable altered behavior patterns over time. Likewise, it should also be noted that they can manifest with other psychological problems (depression, anxiety, etc.).

It is important to highlight the classification established by the DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders). Based on this reference, the main personality disorders can be divided into three groups:

  • Group A: paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal.
  • Group B: antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic.
  • Group C: evasive, dependent, obsessive compulsive.

Let us now delve into each of these clinical categories.

Group A personality disorders

Within this first category collected in group A, we have the following conditions:

1. Paranoid personality disorder

The main characteristic that describes the person with this disorder is a pattern of constant distrust and suspicion towards their environment. His interpretations of what others think of him or his intentions are negative. They live with distrust. In addition, they feel watched and with the feeling that everyone is conspiring against them.

It arises at the beginning of adulthood and ends up in need of isolation and great wear and tear in all types of relationships.

2. Schizoid disorder

The Schizoid disorder of personality is characterized by a social rift . They avoid all contact from the end of adolescence.

  • They do not show a desire for privacy. Nor do they seem to need family contact or interest in establishing bonds of friendship.
  • Likewise, it defines them above all their emotional coldness and low empathy.
  • People with this disorder can experience very brief psychotic episodes in stressful situations.

3. Schizotypal disorder

Among the main personality disorders, schizotypal is one of the most complicated. They also present clear limitations and problems in interpersonal relationships, since they avoid them and in doing so they experience unhappiness. They feel anxiety in any type of social situation, they withdraw into themselves and distrust everyone around them.

However, other more problematic situations appear:

  • They may have psychotic episodes.
  • They often lead to major depressions that can lead to hospital admissions.
  • Also, schizotypal disorder may be comorbid with delusional disorder or schizophrenia.

Group B personality disorders

Group B disorders include those that are best known and, in turn, the most problematic on a social and cultural level. We analyze them.

4. Antisocial disorder

Antisocial is not the same as being asocial. While the latter defines a type of behavior in which social situations tend to be avoided from time to time, the former already falls within a clinical category.

  • The person with an antisocial disorder does not adhere to or respect social norms.
  • Presents aggressive behaviors, lack of repentance and his behavior is impulsive.
  • They do not learn from experience.
  • Low empathy .
  • Unlike group A disorders, in this case the antisocial person does not present problems to relate. What's more, she usually has remarkable abilities, but she does it for one purpose: to achieve something in return.

5. Histrionic personality disorder

The prevalence of histrionic personality disorder is around 2-3%. Its main characteristic is to create a pattern of unstable and intense relationships. They can also idealize someone and eventually reject them. Changes in mood, interests, emotions, and behaviors are prototypical.

  • They use dramatization, exaggeration to attract attention. Their need for affection and admiration is something constant and almost obsessive... Also, when they are not the center of attention, they feel uncomfortable.
  • They are very sensitive people in the sense that they can feel hurt very easily.
  • Low tolerance to frustration.
  • They often display inappropriate sexually seductive or provocative behavior.
  • Exaggerated expression of emotion.

6. Borderline personality disorder

People with borderline personality disorder or borderline defined by a very vulnerable emotional and behavioral state :

  • Low tolerance to stress.
  • Little or no capacity to take responsibility for your life.
  • They are unable to make decisions or solve problems.
  • Low self-esteem.
  • They show great mood swings: they go from joy to despair in seconds.
  • They can idealize someone and detest them in the same day.
  • Low ability to control anger.
  • Fear of abandonment, of being alone.
  • They present episodes of paranoia.
  • They are impulsive and lead to risky behaviors.

7. Narcissistic personality disorder

The narcissistic personality disorder is possibly one of the best known. They are defined by the following characteristics:

  • Feelings of grandeur and a need to capture the attention and admiration of others.
  • Great manipulation capacity to get what they want.
  • Low empathy.
  • Low self-esteem, which pushes them to need the recognition of others to feel good.
  • Low tolerance for frustration and no emotional control.
  • Egocentric behaviors in which violent behaviors such as psychological abuse, domination, the feeling of revenge can appear ...

Group C personality disorders

Dependent behaviors, compulsive behaviors ... Among the main types of personality disorders, group C includes three categories. They are defined by the following:

8. Dependent personality disorder

In this type of condition we have those people who are defined by an absolute dependence on others. They are unable to take responsibility for themselves, be independent, make decisions, and attend to their needs. The most dangerous thing is that they can fall into situations of physical and verbal abuse without being able to react.

9. Avoidant Personality Disorder

Feelings of inferiority, low self-esteem, indecision, inability to socialize and establish relationships, constant feelings of shame, self-criticism ... Avoidant personality disorder is closely related to anxiety disorders.

10 obsessive-compulsive personality disorder

The obsessive-compulsive personality is not the same as obsessive-compulsive disorder . In this case, there is a very specific personality pattern and not just a behavior as such. It is something more problematic in which an obsession with order is evident, by focusing on certain objectives such as working excessively without leaving time for the family or even more so: being inflexible on moral issues, values, etc.

To conclude, as we can see, the different main types of personality disorder define a series of situations that are as complex as they are particular.

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