Vices associated with addictions
Normally, vices are associated with addictions, both to substances such as tobacco or alcohol and to specific behaviors, such as sex or playing video games.
The vice usually has an emotional, psychological and cognitive component and, normally, involves affectation at a social, health, relational, work and even economic level.
It should be said that there are very different types of vices, some that do not fall within what could be considered harmful vices. Next we are going to discover the most popular types of vices .
What do we understand by vices?
There are many types of vices, since, to begin with, it depends a lot on what we understand by vice. A vice is generally some kind of defect, lack or bad habit that is often bordering on the line that separates the moral and the immoral or the correct and the incorrect. Considering that morality and correction are highly dependent aspects of the sociocultural context , it is understandable that what is seen as a vice in one culture is not a vice in another.
Generally, vices involve a transgression of social norms and, in many cases, are associated with criminality and danger. These behaviors can involve some harm to the person who performs them and, also, can harm their closest environment. For example, the consumption of substances such as marijuana or alcohol involves harm at the individual level, especially at the organic level, but, in addition, can provoke aggressive behaviors around them .
In English there is a term more or less similar to the word "vice" in Spanish: vice. This word is used in Anglo-Saxon jurisprudence to refer to minor criminal acts, such as prostitution, gambling, debauchery and obscenity. This idea of vice has a lot to do with a Christian perspective of which behaviors are moral and which are not, especially those that involve the realization of some of the capital sins.
Finally, in popular language we speak of vices to those activities that we carry out too often and with great enthusiasm , although it does not necessarily have to imply any direct damage on ourselves or around us For example, we can say that we have a vice for dancing, for eating ice cream, for playing chess, for gardening ...
The most common types of vices
Next we will see the different types of vices that exist and which are the most representative of each group.
Vices and addictions
On many occasions the word "vice" refers to addictions, both substance and behavioral. These vices involve health damage of different severity and, being addictions, are considered psychological problems , with which, regardless of how morally transgressive they are, they must be treated with the clear purpose of ensuring that the person can be cured.
1. Addiction to pills and other drugs
One of the most serious addictions is addiction to pills and other drugs, whether or not they are legal. Among these drugs we can find substances such as bath salts, cocaine, crack, ecstasy and ketamine but, also, there are legal pills such as the wide spectrum of drugs that can be found in the market.
Being a type of vice in which drugs of a wide variety of legality are included, its consumption can be perceived as moral or amoral depending on what the pill is . For example, addiction to pain relievers is not seen as as transgressing as heroin use could be.
Alcoholism is alcohol addiction that involves a series of behavioral and organic changes, seriously damaging the physical and psychological health of the individual . Alcoholics cannot abstain from consuming their preferred alcoholic beverages and, with each consumption, the damaging effect on their body is accentuated.
This addiction is progressive, since the person will need more and more substance to be able to feel the pleasant effects that alcohol offers him in the short term. You will have the feeling that you are in control of what you consume and that you only need a little alcohol to "catch up", but you will already begin to manifest cognitive problems.
Gambling is the name by which addiction to gambling is known , such as roulette, blackjack, slot machines and, although it may seem surprising, the lottery. In most cases, they are games that can be found in casinos, places where huge amounts of money are wagered.
People with pathological gambling think that they are in control of what they bet or that, sooner or later, the goddess Fortuna will give them joy. The problem is that chance is capricious, and the odds of winning always work against you , so you end up losing a lot of money and suffering serious financial problems.
Smoking is addiction to tobacco and is one of the most accepted on a social level, so it is not surprising that it is also the most common vice. Despite the fact that tobacco advertisements are practically prohibited and young people are no longer bombarded with messages to consume it, the truth is that, today, there are not a few young people who smoke.
Although attempts have been made to raise awareness about the risks of smoking and the damage it involves, especially at the heart and respiratory levels, increasing the chances of suffering from cancer, the truth is that it seems that youth continue to be attracted to this vice , if they see the format of the electronic cigarette is gaining popularity.
Either because they see it as an act of rebellion or because they want to be part of smokers, often seen as the coolest, tobacco is the most widespread addiction.
5. Vice for new technologies
The development of new technologies has allowed people to be more connected than ever . These devices allow communication to be quick and easy, bringing people who can be very far physically together.
But not all are advantages, since the Internet, video games and mobiles have become dangerous addictions among the youth of the 21st century.
Whether it is online games, sending messages by chat, consulting social networks or spending all day on the Internet watching kitten videos, the vice to new technologies is a real fact and of serious concern.
People can prioritize staying constantly informed and not missing anything rather than attending to their academic, work and family obligations.
Also, the Internet is not safe . It has been through this telecommunication that the transmission of "fake news" and critical comments with the appearance or hobbies of people under anonymous profiles has been promoted, reducing self-esteem and misinforming.
6. Vice to work
Work is necessary to survive, of this there is no doubt. However, there are not a few people who end up developing a work addiction, prioritizing meeting all work goals rather than paying attention to their family or their own well-being .
The vice for work has been called both "workaholism" and "karachi" (in Japanese "death from overwork") and can seriously harm the health of the person, since they do not enjoy what happens while they are working: His own life.
7. Vice to sex
Sex addiction, also called sexual dependency, hypersexuality, or nymphomania, is the sex-seeking behavior caused by an insatiable need to have sex .
This great need for sex, depending on its severity, can be considered a mere slightly damaging vice to a serious psychological disorder that must be treated. The nymphomaniac person can risk her health not taking the appropriate prophylactic measures.
8. Vice for sport
Playing sports is healthy, as long as it is done within what is considered recommended and we do not obsess. Sport is considered a vice when exercising so long a day that obligations are neglected .
The person does so much physical activity that, far from gaining muscle mass or getting healthier, he begins to wear down his joints and suffer bone damage, such as the knees or feet.
This obsession can go so far that the person goes on an extremely strict diet, preventing them from going out with friends for a beer or going out to dinner because they do not want to eat anything that is outside of what they have been forced to eat.
Vices of the will
Within the legal language, we would speak of vices of will to a non-voluntary action carried out in a criminal context . These are certain conditions that prevent the person who committed a crime from being judged as if they had been fully aware or free to do what they did, although not without receiving some type of penalty.
1. Ignorance or error
We understand by ignorance or error as vices of will to the fact that a person committed an action but did not know what consequences it would entail . Yes, she will be judged, but not being fully aware of what she was doing will be different.
The fraud refers to the simulation, dissimulation or deception by any of the parties involved in the realization of a crime. The person did not perform an action voluntarily, but was deceived.
3. Violence or intimidation
Actions carried out under threats of violence or intimidation imply fear in the person of suffering some type of punishment or dishonor, and the action in the victim resulting from the intimidating action of the aggressor would not be considered voluntary.
Vice and virtue
Vices in virtue are those behaviors that are seen as negative or immoral on a social level, regardless of whether they involve any real harm to the person who performs them or around them.
They may or may not be crimes depending on the legal code of each country , but there is no doubt that they involve some violation of the social norms of that culture.
A virtue, for example, is a personality trait considered desirable in the context of society, such as being altruistic or kind. Also included within this definition are those considered sins, seen as those personal traits or behaviors that distance us from the wishes of religion, or that prevent us from having salvation guaranteed.
In the case of Christianity, there are three theological virtues: hope, faith and charity. Sins are pride, greed, lust, anger, gluttony, envy, and laziness. Other virtues would be responsibility, generosity, honesty and punctuality, which although their transgression does not have to be sinned, but which, in the context of each culture, can be seen as vicious behaviors.
Vices of language
Oddly enough, the word vice is also used to refer to linguistic phenomena that contradict grammatical norms or hinder understanding between speakers , both written and oral. Some of these vices of language are those that follow.
A pleonasm is the use of words redundantly in the same sentence , as in the following case: "Today I will go to Juan's house to deliver Juan's scooter to Juan because Juan gave it to me yesterday and had not yet returned it to Juan".
This same information could be transmitted with a less redundant phrase: "Today I will go to Juan's house to deliver the scooter that he gave me yesterday and had not yet returned"
Apocope is the elision of some letters of a word to gain speed or sound . It can be presented in a dialectal way, although that, in theory, would not be a vice of the language itself but rather a sample of intralinguistic diversity.
We would speak of a case of apocope that is grammatically incorrect, for example saying "first" instead of "first" when the noun is feminine. For example: "this is the first time I do it" instead of saying "this is the first time I do it"
3. Queísmo and dequeísmo
The queísmo and the dequeísmo are two vices of the very extended language. Both phenomena consist of the subtraction (queísmo) or unnecessary addition (dequeísmo) of the grammatical particle "de" in certain types of sentences .
For example, a case of dequeism would be "I'm glad that athlete has retired" instead of "I'm glad that athlete has retired." On the other hand, we would talk about dequeism in the following sentence "He told me to come to his house." instead of saying "he told me to come to his house."
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